"Before there can be comprehension, there has to be competence without comprehension"Comprehension is a latecomer to the evolutionary process.
Dan Dennett, Intuition Pumps and other tools for thinking (2013), p. 105
"Bacteria have all sorts of remarkable competences that they need not understand at all; their competences serve them well, but they themselves are clueless. Trees have competences whose exercise provides benefits to them, but they don't need to know why. The process of natural selection itself is famously competent, a generator of designs of outstanding ingenuity and efficacy, without a shred of comprehension.Compare with my pithy one liner which critiques Direct Instruction:
Comprehension of the kind we human adults enjoy is a very recent phenomenon on the evolutionary scene, and it has to be composed of structures whose competence is accompanied by, enabled by, a minimal sort of semi-comprehension, or pseudo-comprehension - the kind of (hemi-semi-demi-) comprehension enjoyed by fish or worms. These structures are designed to behave appropriately most of the time, without having to know why their behaviour is appropriate."
- p. 105
"In Direct Instruction there is no script for those who depart from the script or who desire to write their own script"You can't begin to write your own script until you have achieved at least a basic competence in whatever domain you are attempting to master.
- fork in the road options and Direct Instruction